Saturday, August 24, 2019

Chemical and Material Engineering Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Chemical and Material Engineering - Essay Example The process of analyzing the mechanical qualities of nc by researchers is gradual since this process is experiencing various obstacles. Manufacture of the nc materials is one of the Chief impediments of the experimental evaluations of its properties. The preparation of nc involves factors, for example, porosity, contamination and residual stress, which significantly influence its mechanical capabilities (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4127). Indeed, a valid evaluation of the mechanical qualities of the nc requires a sample that is deficient of the contamination and residual stress. Such a sample will have to be large to ensure several tests are done on it. A significant quantity of nc pure copper was synthesized through an electrodeposition technique. Copper (Cu) metal has unique characteristics that make it suitable for in manufacturing the nc sample. Cu has an extensibility quality when undergoing cold rolling at average room temperature (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4127). The deformation feature of Cu has been researched at length through high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). Experimental Procedures According to (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4128), the manufacture of nc copper entails the electrodeposition process through an electrolyte of CuSO4. This is a chemical procedure where the substrate of Cu is deposited on the cathode, which has a capacity of 99.99wt%. The electrolyte had an acidity of 0.9 mol/l and the solution temperature was a moderate 20Â ±1. The purity of the deposits of nc Cu was better than that of 99.993 at% (exclusive of oxygen). If the oxygen content were inclusive, the nc Cu sample would be at 99.98 at%. The Archimedes principle was the standard that researchers were utilizing to measure the density of the nc Cu sample (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4128). The density of the sample was 8.91?0.03 g/cm3, which is indifferent from that of pure Cu, which is 8.96 g/cm3. X-ray diffraction and HRTEM analysis were essential in determining thee microstructure of the Cu sample. The determination of t he nc Cu samples thermal characteristics was through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Plastic deformation of Cu was through cold rolling, which resulted in its extension in length. Results and Discussion The X-ray diffraction was displaying a Cu sample that was exhibiting {110} texture. This sample was showing a substantial broadening of a mean of 28 nm grain size and 0.14% of microstain. This was at a degree of deformation of 2300% (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4128). However, after the cold rolling process the microstain levels in the sample increase but the grain size remains constant at 28nm. Coldrolling of a coarse-grained Cu in similar conditions was producing different results. The microstain level did increase by 0.04% to 18% while the sample disintegrated to a degree of deformation of 800%. Thermal analysis The evaluation of the thermal characteristics was of a temperature bracket of 50Â °C to 250Â °C at a constant combustion of 5Â °C/min (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4130). The implications of these processes were subject to a DSC scan, which was showing no oxidation of the nc Cu samples. There was annealing of nc Cu at various temperature and afterwards cooled by the DSC process. Increment of the grain size of nc Cu from 75Â °C to 200Â °C was evident by 50 nm. Grain boundary enthalpy XRD results were representative of the grain growth of nc CU from 30nm to 80nm. Essentially, grain boundary enthalpy entails two procedures (Lu, Lu & Sui, 4132). The first is the dislocation of grain boundaries, which

Friday, August 23, 2019

Describe the purpose of assessment in Adult nursing Essay

Describe the purpose of assessment in Adult nursing - Essay Example Emotional and social factors on the other hand include occupation, responsibilities, family ties, attitude towards health care, emotional tone and mood (Dougherty & Lister, 2011). Nursing assessment is essential as it is the foundation of an effective nursing care plan. A comprehensive nursing assessment is conducted by a registered nurse and it can be defined as extensive and ongoing collection of data for families, individuals and communities at large. This ongoing data collection is a method of addressing emergent and anticipated changes in the health of an individual in comparison to the previous condition. Older people need continuing health care because of their interrelated health care problems. Nursing assessment for the adults is done to ensure that they get the appropriate timely and effective response to their health problems and needs (National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2011). There is another type of nursing assessment known as the focused nursing. According to the national council of states boards of nursing (2011), this is an appraisal of the health status of an individual making a contribution to comprehensive assessment to support the ongoing data collection. Focused assessment also helps the nurses to make a decision of who needs to be given the information and when it is appropriate to do so. Focused assessment is specific on patients in emergency. Assessment is usually the first step in the nursing process thus it is the basis for a good health care plan (Schaller-Ayers & Fuller, 2000). The crucial details for making accurate assessments are to view all patients holistically in order to identify their needs. Assessment is not just a mere collection of data but involves the critical thinking of nurses to validate and synthesize the information to make informed judgements of the life process of individuals (Standing, 2010). It is about understanding and describing

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Activation Of T Lymphocytes Essay Example for Free

Activation Of T Lymphocytes Essay Different types of T lymphocytes exist and each type performs a specialized function.   Helper T cells, also known as TH cells, serve as messengers of the immune system.   When helper T cells are activated, these cells proliferate and produce cytokines, which are small proteins that control the extent of immune response that a biological organism will express.   Several types of cytokines exist and each cytokine triggers the maturation of helper T cells into specific subtypes such as helper T cell subtype 1, 2 and 17 (Balandina et al. , 2005). Another type of T lymphocyte is the cytotoxic T cell (CTL), which is also known as the TC cell.   Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for the destruction of cells that were infected by viruses, as well as for the annihilation of tumor cells.   These cells also play a major role in determining whether a cell is normally part of the system or a foreign cell.   Cytotoxic T cells are known to be the first in line to react and reject if an organ transplanted into a recipient is not compatible in terms of tissue compatibility. The cytotoxic T cells that are associated with tissue rejection are designated at CD8+ T cells, based on the idea that these cytotoxic T cells produce a specific CD8 glycoprotein that is displayed on its cell membrane.   These CD8 glycoproteins interact with helper T lymphocytes, of which may trigger its transformation into regulatory T cells.   The major role of regulatory T cells is to inhibit the onset of an autoimmune disorder within the system of the organism. Another type of T lymphocyte is the memory T cell which is produced as soon as an infection occurs in an individual.   These specific T cells continue to circulate in the blood system for several months even when the infection has been stopped.   Memory T cells further differentiate into effector T cells when they find the same antigen that was associated with the previous infection, hence the term memory is appropriate to apply to this type of function.   Two general types of memory T cells include the central and effector cells.  Ã‚   Memory T cells are known to carry either the CD4 or the CD8 glycoprotein on its plasma membrane (Wildin et al., 2001). Regulatory T cells are another type of T lymphocytes that play a crucial role in sustaining the tolerance of the immune system (Khattri et al., 2003).   These T cells were earlier called suppressor T cells and their primary role is to prevent immunity that is caused by other T cells during the later stages of an immune response (Fontenot et al., 2003).   Regulatory T cells are also responsible for inhibiting the immune reaction towards other cells of the body or self cells because this is important in maintaining the stability of the entire immunological system. Specific conditions result in the immune response towards self cells and this is usually observed when the thymus experiences difficulty in distinguishing self cells from non-self or foreign cells.   There are two major types of CD4+ regulatory T cells that have been characterized.   Naturally occurring regulatory T cells originate from the thymus and are sometimes referred to as CD4/CD25/ForP3 T regulatory cells. The other major type of CD4+ regulatory T cell is the adaptive T regulatory cell which is produced when an innate immune response occurs.   This type of cell is also called Tr1 or Th3 cell (Hori et al., 2003).   A distinguishing feature that facilitates is the differentiation of naturally occurring T regulatory cells from the rest of types of T lymphocytes is the occurrence of the FoxP3 molecule that is situated within the cytoplasm.   Research has shown that mutations incurred in the FOXP3 gene results in the inability of regulatory T cells to differentiate, which in turn influences the onset of the lethal condition of autoimmunity. Another type of T lymphocyte is the natural killer T cell which is serves as the communicator between the adaptive and the innate immune systems.   Different from the standard T lymphocyte that identifies protein antigens that are harbored by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the natural killer T lymphocytes distinguish glycolipid antigens that are shown by the protein molecule CD1d.   The natural killer T lymphocyte is then activated and subsequently acquires the ability to execute specific functions that are related to Th and Tc cells, including the secretion of cytokines and the expression of cytolytic molecules that are responsible for the destruction of foreign cells that have invaded the body. Gamma-delta T lymphocytes represent a small subtype of T cells that carry a unique receptor on their plasma membrane.   Most of the T lymphocytes carry a receptor that is comprised by two strings of alpha and beta glycoproteins.   In gamma-delta T lymphocytes, the receptor is composed of a gamma and a delta glycoprotein string.   Gamma-delta T lymphocytes are quite rare, comprising only approximately 5% of the entire T lymphocyte population but are found in high concentrations in the epithelial lining of the stomach, as part of population of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Protein antigens that trigger a response from gamma-delta T cells have still yet to be determined.   It is interesting to know that gamma-delta T lymphocytes are not exclusively assigned to carry major histocompatibility complex molecules and are actually capable of identifying entire proteins than simply perceiving short protein chains carried by the major histocompatibility complex molecules on lymphocytes that harbor antigens. There are particular gamma-delta T cells that have the capacity to identify a specific type of major histocompatibility complex molecules, specifically class IB.   In the human immune system, the Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T lymphocyte makes up the majority of the gamma-delta T lymphocyte population that is circulating in the bloodstream.   These specific T lymphocytes have the function of quickly reacting to a tiny metabolite that originates from microorganisms, known as the isopentenyl pyrophosphate precursor.   Another type of T lymphocyte is the autoaggressive T cell which is highly specialized based on its ability to secrete the CD40 protein molecule (Miura et al., 2004).   CD40 is generally linked to T lymphocytes that present fragments of an antigen and this protein molecule is commonly produced by a subtype of T helper lymphocytes. Th40 cells are present in all human beings but the levels of this specific type of cells quickly increase during conditions of autoimmunity.   In patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the Th40 cells usually react to self-antigens.   In the case of patients diagnosed with non-autoimmune individuals, the Th40 lymphocytes do not react with these antigens.   An important function of the CD40 protein molecule on T lymphocytes is to trigger the recombinase proteins RAG1 and RAG2 in directing the receptor of a T lymphocyte. The receptor of a T lymphocyte serves as the route through which a T lymphocyte is able to identify a specific antigen.   It has been determined that the two recombinase proteins be produced exclusively in the thymus during the development of T lymphocytes.   It was, however, observed that the RAG proteins were secreted again by the T lymphocytes that were circulating in the bloodstream.   In addition, it was also observed that the CD40 protein associated with Th40 lymphocytes, resulting in the production of RAG proteins.   Subsequent to the expression of the RAG proteins, modifications in the receptor of the T cells take place, suggesting that the Th40 lymphocytes carry the ability to adapt for the entire duration of an individual’s life. The procedure of modifying the expression of the receptors of T cells that are circulating in the bloodstream has been names as TDR revision.   Research has reported that TCR revision influences the expansion of the repertoire of T lymphocytes, as well as generates T lymphocytes that are autoaggressive.   This observation therefore shows that the revision of the receptors of T cells is another method of T lymphocyte tolerance. THE DEVELOPMENT OF T LYMPHOCYTES IN THE THYMUS T lymphocytes are developed from the stem cells of the hematopoietic system which is located in the bone marrow.   These stem cells migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus, where they are expected to proliferate through the process of cell division and generate immature thymocytes.   Young thymocytes generally do not secrete any CD4 or CD8 proteins hence these cells have been described as CD4-CD8- cells. During their course of development, the young thymocytes acquire the capability of secreting CD4 and CD8 molecules and these thymocytes are now classified as CD4+CD8+ (Sakaguchi, 2000).   Further maturation of these cells involves the specific secretion of only one protein, either the CD4 or the CD8 molecule.   Once this has been determined in each thymocytes, these cells are then expelled by the thymus in order for them to circulate to the rest of the body.   Approximately 98% of the thymocytes produced by the thymus are expected to disintegrate during its maturation, resulting in only 2% of the thymocytes reaching maturity and categorically expelled by the thymus as immunocompetent T lymphocytes. Immature thymocytes that harbor the two types of antigens, CD4 and CD8, migrate into the core of the thymus in order to associate with antigens that are generated by the T lymphocyte.   These thymocytes interact with the major histocompatibility complex molecules that are present of the plasma membrane of the cells of the epithelium.   Only a specific fraction of thymocytes will be able to completely bind with the major histocompatibility complex molecules thus resulting in a signal that indicates the survival of the thymocyte. The rest of the thymocytes that were not able to achieve a complete association with the major histocompatibility complex molecules are thus classified as incapable of performing immune functions or even illicit an immune response.   This specific group of thymocytes thus undergoes the process of apoptosis, which involved the disintegration of the nucleus which eventually leads to cell death.   The cellular debris that results from the apoptotic pathway are enveloped and eaten by macrophages.   The entire process of differentiating immuno-competent from immuno-incompetent thymocytes based on the ability to illicit an immune reaction is known as positive selection. Thymocytes that endure positive selection travel towards the perimeter of the cortical and middle regions of the thymus. While situated in the middle region of the thymus, the thymocytes are presented with an antigen of its self in association with the major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including the dendritic cells and macrophages.   Thymocytes that intensely associate with the antigen are sent a signal that induces their programmed death and the rest of the thymocytes that were first generated are trigger to disintegrate during this selection process in the thymus. A small fraction of the cells that survived is induced to develop regulatory T cells.   The other cells subsequently depart the thymus as differentiation naive T lymphocytes.   This mechanism is designated as negative selection, an essential process of immunological tolerance that controls the development of T lymphocytes that react to self cells and are able of to cause an autoimmune disease in the body of an individual (Shevach, 2000). Although the specific mechanisms of activation vary slightly between different types of T cells, the two-signal model in CD4+ T cells holds true for most. Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the engagement of both the T cell receptor and CD28 on the T cell by the Major histocompatibility complex peptide and B7 family members on the APC respectively. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of CD28 co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from both CD28 and the T cell receptor involve many proteins. The first signal is provided by binding of the T cell receptor to a short peptide presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on another cell. This ensures that only a T cell with a TCR specific to that peptide is activated. The partner cell is usually a professional antigen presenting cell (APC), usually a dendritic cell in the case of naà ¯ve responses, although B cells and macrophages can be important APCs. The peptides presented to CD8+ T cells by MHC class I molecules are 8-9 amino acids in length; the peptides presented to CD4+ cells by MHC class II molecules are longer, as the ends of the binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule are open. The second signal comes from co-stimulation, in which surface receptors on the APC are induced by a relatively small number of stimuli, usually products of pathogens, but sometimes breakdown products of cells, such as necrotic-bodies or heat-shock proteins (Brunkow et al., 2001). The only co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively by naà ¯ve T cells is CD28, so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins on the APC. Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these largely depend upon CD28 for their expression. The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic and it becomes more difficult for it to activate in future. This mechanism prevents inappropriate responses to self, as self-peptides will not usually be presented with suitable co-stimulation. The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several proteins. The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide chains which are produced from the independent T cell receptor alpha and beta (TCR? and TCR?) genes. The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins; CD3 and CD3 heterodimers and most importantly a CD3? homodimer which has a total of six ITAM motifs. The ITAM motifs on the CD3? can be phosphorylated by Lck and in turn recruit ZAP-70. Lck and/or ZAP-70 can also phosphorylate the tyrosines on many other molecules, not least CD28, Trim, LAT and SLP-76, which allows the aggregation of signalling complexes around these proteins. Phosphorylated LAT recruits SLP-76 to the membrane, where it can then bring in PLC?, VAV1, Itk and potentially PI3K. Both PLC? and PI3K act on PI(4,5)P2 on the inner leaflet of the membrane to create the active intermediaries di-acyl glycerol (DAG), inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and phosphatidlyinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). DAG binds and activates some PKCs, most importantly in T cells PKC?, which is important for activating the transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1. IP3 is released from the membrane by PLC? and diffuses rapidly to activate receptors on the ER which induce the release of calcium. The released calcium then activates calcineurin, and calcineurin activates NFAT, which then translocates to the nucleus. NFAT is a transcription factor which activates the transcription of a pleiotropic set of genes, most notably IL-2, a cytokine which promotes long term proliferation of activated T cells. Overview of interactions between T cells and APCs T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the cell-mediated immune response of adaptive immunity. T lymphocytes are divided into 2 major classes distinguished by the expression of the cell surface molecules CD4 or CD8. CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) primarily destroy virus-infected cells whereasCD4 helper T lymphocytes are involved in activating B cells and macrophages. The response of both classes of T lymphocytes is dependent on interactions through the T cell receptor (TCR) and coreceptors (CD4 or CD8) with target APCs that present peptides in the context of MHC class I or class II molecules. MHC class I and class II molecules are structurally similar but differ in their source of antigenic peptide and in the transport mechanisms for their peptides. Class I MHC molecules present self peptides or viral products from the cytosol to CD8 T lymphocytes, whereas MHC class II molecules present peptides from pathogens that either reside or were endocytosed into intracellular compartments (Fontenot and Rudensky, 2005). T cells are activated on encountering antigen, which results in either lysis of target cells by CD8 T lymphocytes or recruitment of other effector cells by CD4 cells.   Modulation of the plasma membrane alters the T cell Ca2+ response.   A series of studies from showedthat unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) could inhibit specific aspects of cytotoxic T cell function by perturbing membranes.   Initially, it was shown that short-term exposure of murine allogeneic effector T cells to low levels of unsaturated FFAs (10 mol/L), including PUFAs, inhibited lysis of target APCs. The change in lysis of target cells was a direct consequence of the FFA added to the CTLs, because lysis could be inhibited by extracting the unsaturated FFA with bovine serum albumin before CTL-target conjugation. Specific aspects of T cell function inhibited by unsaturated lipids included the initial rise in intracellular [Ca2+] on conjugate formation, protein phosphorylation events and subsequent CTL esterase release.   On the other hand, release of inositol phosphates and binding to target cells were unaffected. Because the inhibition in CTL calcium release linearly correlated with the decrease in membrane acyl chain order induced by the presence of increasing unsaturation in the plasma membrane , it was hypothesized that modulation of membrane structure affected T cell Ca2+ signaling. References Balandina A, Lecart S, Dartevelle P, Saoudi A and Berrih-Aknin S (2005):   Functional defect of regulatory CD4( )CD25 T cells in the thymus of patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Blood   105:735–741. Brunkow ME, Jeffery EW, Hjerrild KA, Paeper B, Clark LB, Yasayko SA, Wilkinson JE, Galas D, Ziegler SF and Ramsdell F (2001):   Disruption of a new forkhead/winged-helix protein, scurfin, results in the fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of the scurfy mouse. Nat. Genet.   27:68–73. Fontenot JD, Gavin MA and Rudensky AY (2003):   Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4-CD25 regulatory T cells. Nat. Immunol.   4:330–336. Fontenot JD and Rudensky AY (2005):   A well adapted regulatory contrivance:   Regulatory T cell development and the forkhead family transcription factor Foxp3. Nat. Immunol. 6:331–337. Hori S, Nomura T and Sakaguchi S (2003):   Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299:1057–1061 Khattri R, Cox T, Yasayko SA and Ramsdell F (2003):   An essential role for Scurfin in CD4-CD25 T regulatory cells. Nat. Immunol.   4:337–342. Miura Y, Thoburn CJ, Bright EC, Phelps ML, Shin T, Matsui EC, Matsui WH, Arai S, Fuchs EJ and Vogelsang GB (2004):   Association of Foxp3 regulatory gene expression with graft-versus-host disease. Blood   104:2187–2193. Sakaguchi S (2000):   Regulatory T cells: key controllers of immunologic self-tolerance.   Cell 101:455–458. Shevach EM (2000): Regulatory T cells in autoimmmunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol.   18:423–449. Wildin RS, Ramsdell F, Peake J, Faravelli F, Casanova JL, Buist N, Levy-Lahad E, Mazzella M, Goulet O and Perroni L (2001): X-linked neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy and endocrinopathy syndrome is the human equivalent of mouse scurfy. Nat. Genet.   27:18–20.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Picassos Background And Life Experiences Essay Example for Free

Picassos Background And Life Experiences Essay Picasso was arguably the most influential artist of the twentieth century. He had some degree of influence in all styles of painting which were used during his time, and was known and respected by almost every art enthusiast on the face of the planet. Pablo Picasso, born Pablo Ruiz Picasso, came into the world on the 25th of October 1881 in the southern Spanish town of Malaga. Pablo was an artist from early in his life he was a child prodigy. He began his career as a classical painter. He painted things such as portraits and landscapes. But this style didnt satisfy Picasso, he was a free man and wanted to express himself and ultimately leave a lasting mark on art, as we know it. Picasso turned his attention to cubes. He invented Cubism a radical art form that used harsh lines and corners to display a picture instead of the usual soft curves. Picasso won a lot of fame for his Cubist paintings, but was criticized for it also. He designed and painted the drop curtain and some giant cubist figures for a ballet in 1917. When the audience saw the huge distorted images on stage, they were angry, they thought the ballet was a joke at their expense. Cubism lived on despite this. Other artists mimicked Picassos Cubism, and it took hold. Picasso had only just begun his one-man art revolution. In the late 1920s, Picasso fixed himself upon an even more revolutionary art form Surrealism. Surrealism emphasized the role of the unconscious mind in creative activity. Surrealists aimed at creating art from dream, visions, and irrational impulses. Their paintings shocked the world particularly Picassos it was unlike anything anyone had ever seen before. He took advantage of this fact and also the fact that he was extremely famous, to make a few political statements, statements that would go down in history. 1936 saw the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Fascist revolutionaries, led by Francisco Franco took hold of Spain and imposed a fascist dictatorship upon the country. Due to poor economic control and disregard for the people on the part of the Fascists, the country went through hell. The unemployment rate was phenomenal. The majority of the population were peasants and lived in appalling conditions. Impoverished gangs scavenged in fields and rubbish heaps for anything they could find. A vast horde of ragged, jobless people  wandered around from town to town. On top of this the Fascists operated as a police state and therefore anyone who opposed it would be executed. This incident sparked the most important time in Picassos life. On April 26 1937, Nazi German bombers flying under orders from General Francisco Franco, laid waste to the town of Guernica, in the Basque part of Spain, killing many innocent civilians. The bombing of Guernica was an extremely cruel example to the rest o f Spain of what would happen if the Republican resistance continued. This action prompted Picasso to paint Guernica; some say his greatest masterpiece ever. It shows the suffering and destruction of the town, as well as Picassos own horror and outrage at what happened. The painting depicts death and carnage on a large scale. A grief stricken mother is holding her dead child, a woman is burning, a severed arm holding a broken spear is lying next to a dead man and a horse, which represents the people, has been speared through the heart and is in agony. The bull stands alone, above everything else. The painting shook not only the art world but also the political world. Guernica is Picassos major political expression of all his paintings. Even though it is a single painting, it did so much. And even though it is painted using expressionism, it is still so powerful and it made people realize what was going on in Spain and struck up sympathy for the Spanish people, and hatred for the fascists. Even though Picasso only aimed to express his own horror, outrage, suffering and sorrow of the Spanish people. By unleashing Guernica on the world, Picasso achieved more than he set out to do. Guernica struck up mixed emotions. The Nazis thought of his work as degenerate art not only did it defy the rules of painting; his artwork was anti-Fascist and therefore anti-Nazi. On the other hand, the British, Americans, French etc. loved his work because it expressed, as nothing else could, the horrors and atrocities of Fascism. When Nazi occupation of Paris came, Picassos work was prohibited from public exhibition. Picasso then took on a new role. He refused to leave Paris while the Nazis were there his fame protected him. But Picassos refusal to co-operate with the Germans also made him, as a person, a symbol of freedom, of the unvanquished spirit After the war however, Picassos work was not  met entirely with open arms. In Paris, those still influenced by Nazi propaganda, violently protested against Picasso. But this wore off and Picasso went down in history as not only one of the greatest artists ever, but also a hero, and a figure of defiance against Fascism. Works Cited Page  ·Pablo Picasso: The Early Years. E-Library Article Preview.  ·Picasso and Braque : pioneering cubism : [exhibition] Museum of Modern Art, New York, September 24, 1989-January 16, 1990.  ·The Artist and the Camera : Degas to Picasso, by Kosinski, Dorothy M.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Improve your paragraphs by varying the complexity of your sentences

Improve your paragraphs by varying the complexity of your sentences Exercise name: 1 Exercise type Input Copyright info Instruction In this module you will: learn about how to revise your argument through re-outlining, learn how to improve your paragraphs by varying the complexity of your sentences, learn how to eliminate wordiness review where the passive voice is appropriate, reflect on your word choice practise proofreading your text for punctuation. Module 15: Revising academic writing Exercise name: 2a Intro Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA Many students think of writing as a process that ends when they take the last sheet of paper out of the printer. This is not entirely true. Good writers make thorough, and, when necessary, radical revisions. There are three steps to be carried when revising your paper: Reoutlining, that is re-examining the structure of your argument Re-examining thestyle of your prose Proofreading, that is checking the check the correctness of your paper Exercise name: 2b Reoutlining Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction Reoutlining You may have begun your project with an outline. Re-outlining, that is, writing an outline on the basis of what you have written, helps you see if you have achieved your goal. Compare your two outlines, and ask yourself the following questions: Have I made the thesis or focus clear? Are the ideas and details arranged in the most effective order? Have I divided the text into appropriate segments? Have I made clear the connections between the segments? Do I use appropriate cohesive markers to relay the connection of thoughts? Do I have sufficient support, sufficient evidence for my assertions? Do I have any irrelevant information? Do I need to rewrite my introduction or conclusion? Exercise name: 2c Removing tangents Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA Removing tangents Every sentence in your paper should advance your argument, whether by presenting your thesis, introducing subsidiary points, explaining logical relationships between points, presenting and explaining textual evidence, or drawing conclusions. In other words, if you elaborate on an interesting idea, which does not, however, directly advance your argument, you are going off on a tangent. Tangents may be acceptable in some forms of informal writing, e.g. letters, but they are inacceptable in academic English. Here, arguments have to be linear. Anything else is a filler and should be removed. For example, in a paper on Shakespeares imagery, you would not include biographical information about his family, unless this information is directly and clearly related to your argument about Shakespeares imagery. Exercise name: 3 Removing tangents Exercise type MC V1 Copyright info NA Embedded Pop-up text included. See next page! Instruction Click on â€Å"Read Text† to view the results of a history students re-outlining of a paper on the origins of the World War One. Then, decide which entries below are tangents to the students thesis. [C] Platos political theories [] Bank failures in Germany [] French democracy vs German autocracy [C] Economic repercussions of World War I [] Naval race between Great Britain and German [C] Pre-War European Art Embedded Pop-Up Text to 3 Outline: History dissertation proposal The Origins of World War I I Introduction Thesis: World War I was started by a number of factors which had their origin in the natural rivalries between the European countries II Economic rivalries A. Grain tariffs in Germany and France B. Economic repercussions of World War One III Political rivalries A. French Democracy vs German autocracy B. Platos political theories IV Military rivalries A. The â€Å"naval race† between Great Britain and Germany B. Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance V Pre-War European Art A. Impressionism B. Expressionism VI Conclusion war was inevitable Exercise name: 4a Re-examining at the sentence level Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA The overall structure of your paper is very important. So, too, is the organization at the sentence level. As you become an experienced writer, the more you will develop your own prose style, your own distinctive patterns of sentence length and structure. While you are developing your style, remember that there are two bad habits to watch out for: Too many simple subject-verb-object sentences in a row Though a few such sentences can be useful to punctuate longer ones, long strings of them tend to sound unintelligent. If you spot a long sequence of simple, short sentences, try to link sentences together by relating their ideas to one another. Spaghetti sentences At the opposite extreme, some writers write overly long and complex sentences in the belief that this is a convention of academic writing. A few very long sentences can be effective in an argument. However, if most of your prose is made up of very long sentences even if they are carefully structured your argument will be weakened. Exercise name: 4b Using the active voice over the passive voice Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA Using the active voice over the passive voice Study the two sentences below. Which sentence do you find to be clearer? Passive: The survey was returned by the subjects by email. Active: The subjects returned to survey by email. Most readers would prefer the second sentence as sentences written in the active voice are generally easier to understand. This is because the actor and the action are clearer. This does not mean that one should avoid writing in the passive voice entirely. The passive important when putting an emphasis on the object in a sentence or in situations where the subject is not known. For example: The subjects were observed over an eight year period. The test dogs were given three large doses of the chemical. Exercise name: 4c Avoiding impersonal â€Å"it† Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA Good writers avoid sentences with phrases that begin with â€Å"it†. Instead, they attempt to clarify the action and focus on actors and actions. Phrases like â€Å"It is suggested† or â€Å"It may be recalled†can often be deleted in favour of the known subject. For example: In the report it is suggested that good nutrition is the key to happiness BETTER: The report suggests that good nutrition is the key to happiness It may be recalled that this topic is discussed in Chapter 2 in greater detail. BETTER: Chapter 2 discusses this topic in greater detail. Stopped here need to replace an exercise Exercise name: 5 Sentence structure extremes Exercise type MC V1 Copyright info Instruction [] Paragraph contains too many short sentences. [] Paragraph two has too many spaghetti sentences. [C] The first sentence of paragraph 1 would be better as: â€Å"As a result of the Prime Ministers remarks, the audience, composed exclusively of diplomats, believe that this governments position would be similar to that of its predecessor † [C] The first sentence of paragraph 2 would be better as: A greenhouse is a building made out of glass where plants grows. [C] The last sentence of paragraph 1 would be better as: â€Å"The Prime Minister failed to understand the gravity of the situation. He acted as if this problem could simply be ignored.† [C] The last two sentence of paragraph 2 could be better if combined to â€Å"The retained radiation heats the earths atmosphere and keeps the planet warm.† Not a very challenging exercise, since all of the reformulated sentences are supposed to be better. Rollover Text 1 Impressions formed from the remarks of the Prime Minister, difficult enough as they were to understand, only confirmed the audience, which was composed exclusively of members of the diplomatic corps, in its belief that the government, which had only been in office for a short while, would not take a stance differing from that of the previous administration, which most of the diplomats found depressing, although they had not liked the previous government. The Prime Minster, however, failing to grasp the gravity of the situation, acted as if this problem, which will certainly accompany his administration for the duration of its term, could simply be ignored. Rollover Text 2 A greenhouse is a building where plants grow. A greenhouse has transparent glass. The glass allows the sunlight to enter, but does not allow the heat inside to escape. The same effect occurs on the earth. The earths atmosphere functions like the glass. The suns radiation passes through the atmosphere to heat the earths surface. The earths surface then produces infrared radiation. This radiation has a longer wavelength than that of sunlight. This radiation rises into the atmosphere where gases such as carbon dioxide, prevent the infrared radiation from escaping into space. These gases are called greenhouse gases. They control how much infrared radiation escapes the atmosphere. The retained radiation heats the earths atmosphere. This radiation keeps the planet warm. Exercise name: 6 Passive and active sentences Exercise type Drag to Category Correct answers in bold. Copyright info NA Instruction Drag the sentences where it would be appropriate to rewrite in an active form to the appropriate box (passive voice, active voice) [The water was poured into the test tube.] [Nuclear power plants are opposed by many voters.] [Reductions of up to 80% in heat and mass transfer coefficients were measured.] [In my department the advice on clear English has been disregarded.] [In the 19th century a fundamental belief in God was taken for granted by most people.] [A reduction in nuclear weapons was proposed by a number of states.] [Each subject was given three injections] [The rats were fed a protein-free diet for 21 days.] [Appropriate use of passive voice] [Sentence should be reformulated in the active voice] Exercise name: 7 Removing impersonal â€Å"it† and â€Å"there† Exercise type Copyright info Instruction In the text written by Giddens it is said that peer pressure among teenagers can lead to violence. [According to Giddens peer pressure among teenagers can lead to violence. This does not mean that it should be prohibited to write about or to show pictures of the celebrities in the mass media. [Writing about or showing pictures of celebrities in the mass media should not necessarily be prohibited.] It is guaranteed that there is freedom of expression in Germany. [Freedom] [of] [expression [ [is] [guaranteed] in [Germany] It certainly seems that Shakespeare intended to suggest that Macbeth was weaker than his wife. [S. certainly suggested that Macbeth was weaker than his wife.] Are we allowed to design connect it exercises where you have almost twice as many options on the right-hand side than on the left? All the other exercise types dont really work with these sentences. My first association was a missing words or text checker exericse, but that wouldnt work here. What did Jeffrey originally want the learner to do here? Exercise name: 8 Find the actor and agent Exercise type Text MC (Là ¼ckentext mit DropDown) Correct answer always bold. Copyright info NA Instruction Find the actor and action for each sentence below. Actor Action In several books it is described how Mahler screamed at the musicians in his orchestra. [books, Mahler, musicians] [describe, scream, play music] It will be beneficial for the Physics Department to expand its internet facilities as more and more communication is web-based. [Physics Department, internet, web-based] [benefit, expand, communicate] It is hoped by both parties that further delays can be avoided. [It, both parties, delay] [hope, delay, avoid] It has been decided by the government of Great Britain that it should make an approach to the World Bank with a view to the possible granting of a loan. [Great Britain, government of Great Britain, World Bank] [decide, approach, grant] It is now incumbent on the United Nations to focus its attention on tasks of the highest priority in order to achieve success within the parameters of its goal expectations. [The United Nations, tasks, goals] [focus, achieve, expect] A recommendation was made by the European Parliament that consideration be given by the Member States to a simplification of the award procedure. [recommendation, European Parliament, Member States) [recommend, consider, simplify] The foregoing table is intended to assist readers in understanding the costs and expenses that the university will bear directly or indirectly. [Table, readers, costs] [intend, assist, understand] Exercise name: 9 Reformulate the sentences Exercise type Unscramble sentences Copyright info NA Instruction Unscramble the improved version of sentences from the previous exercise [Several books] [describe] [how] [Mahler] [screamed] [at] [the] [musicians] [in] [his] [orchestra]. [The United Nations] [must] [now] [turn] [to top-priority] tasks] [in order to] [reach] [its] goals]. [This table] [describes] [the] universitys] [costs] [and] [expenses]. [The European Parliament] [recommended] [that] [the member states] [consider] [simplifying] [the award procedure]. [The Physics Department] [should] [expand] [its] [internet facilities] [to meet] [the growing need]. [Both parties] [hope] [to avoid] [further] [delays]. [Great Britains] [government] [has] [decided] [to ask] [the World Bank] [for] [a loan]. Exercise name: 10a Selecting the right words Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA In 1944, George Orwell came up with a number of rules for writing well. One of these rules is: â€Å"Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.† For example: The Ministry of State has reached the conclusion that it should make an application to the Federal government with a view to the possible granting of a loan Could be cut down to: The Ministry of State has concluded that it should ask the Federal government for a loan. and The experiment had to be postponed because of the unfavourable climatic conditions. Could be rewritten as: The experiment was postponed because of the bad weather. Citation: George Orwell, â€Å"Politics and the English Language† Exercise name: 10b Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA Finding the right word is one of the most important tasks of good writing. Use words accurately, with precision, and avoid gobbledygook and jargon. When revising, look for phrases and words that dont stand up to scrutiny. Generally speaking, it is a good rule to use the more common and simpler word if no loss in meaning is involved. For example: Stratford is the locality where Shakespeare was born. Better: Stratford is the place where Shakespeare was born. Below is a list from the â€Å"Plain English† website of simpler, more common words which may be used in place of words which may at first sound more â€Å"academic† ascertain find out axiomatic obvious endeavour try expedite hasten, speed up facilitate make easier, help formulate work out, devise, form for the reason that because locality place optimum best, greatest, most strategize plan (The â€Å"Plain English† campaign was begun by a British civil servant inspired by Orwell.) Exercise name: 10c Commas Exercise type Input Copyright info NA Instruction NA After you have done the work of reorganizing your structure and of editing your style, you need to proofread. It is very important for that first impression that you make no mistakes in spelling or punctuation. Some of the most common mistakes that can be quickly caught are commas after introductory elements and semi-colons between two complete sentences. Remember the rules: A comma is generally used after an introductory element, especially if this element is long or if the speaker would normally pause at this point in speech. Remembering what Berlin was like in spring, she looked forward to returning. When mentioning a word for the first, a comma is placed in front of any abbreviations, acronyms of that word. [Give an example, e.g. with GNP] However, a comma is misplaced if it comes between the verb and its object. This mistake is especially common before â€Å"that† Incorrect: I doubt, that she understands how to use commas correctly. Correct: I doubt that she understands how to use commas correctly. Exercise name: 11 Exercise type Text checker Copyright info NA Instruction It is axiomatic (obvious) that English has become the worlds most spoken language in science, politics and commerce. It was difficult to ascertain (find out) from the corpora whether the women use more deictic expressions than men. Berlin is the capital of Germany for the reason that (because) it was once the capital of Prussia. The optimum (best) advertising strategy is often only discovered after extensive market research. Subjects who utilize (use) †¦ the library correctly will help facilitate (speed up) your work. Adding this chemical will expedite (speed up) the reaction. Exercise name: 12 Comm

The I.R.A: Activists or Terrorists? :: essays research papers fc

I do not support the I.R.A, as I do not support Marxist or terrorists. The political wing of the I.R.A (Sinn Fein) is communists hiding under a nationalist stance. Gerry Adams is the man who heads the Sinn Fein; the man who replaced Martin McGuinness as the leader of the Sinn Fein. The actual I.R.A has splintered due to the communist tyranny the Sinn Fein has invoked on them. There’s the real I.R.A who are nationalists and wanted the British out. The will not talk to the British, as they feel they are foreign invaders. Then there's the Provo I.R.A and there nothing more then Marxist terrorist. There whole strategy is based on very fashionable Marxist politics. The current Provo I.R.A slogan â€Å"I ran away† plainly states,† It doesn’t matter if we are Marxist, just blindly follow usâ€Å". Now the I.R.A had a legit fight, but once there political wing got corrupted with the red disease, everything went down hill. They started going after protestant church es, little children and other innocent people. That's not tolerable, it’s one thing to go after military targets and other government institutes, but once you start going after innocent civilians, that's crossing the line between activist and terrorist thug. The U.D.A (Ulster Defense Association) is no better, as there more concerned with there drug trafficking, then defending Ulster from these Marxist Terrorist. Now I want a united Ireland, it sickens to me to hear bout these so called nationalists killing there own brothers over some church divisions. A united Ireland is what I want to see, I want to see them unite and rid Ireland of there true enemy, the Marxist who have for the last 40 years been playing with there lives. In the 1920’s, the British wanted to get out of northern Ireland as it was during World war 1. Britain did not have one solid voice. So they pulled out. There was a protestant majority that felt they where British, and wanted to stay British. So Britain decided to partition Ireland. The Brits would take control of the northern part of Ireland, and call it Northern Ireland. They would leave the rest of the island for the Irish. Neither side was happy about this outcome. The majority of the Irish bitterly accepted this. They felt Northern Ireland would collapse under it‘s own weight. A group of brave Irish nationalist did not stand for this, and fought tooth and nail to rise against the British.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Why is there evil? :: essays research papers

Dostoevsky: Why is there evil?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This story is about two brothers, Ivan and Alyosha. Alyosha is a monk and Ivan is his brother who doesn’t believe or accept God. Ivan believes that God cannot exist because there is evil. He doesn’t want to try and be convinced otherwise by his brother.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ivan accepts and believes in God and says that there has to be evil. Evil has to be permitted because without it men would never know the difference between good and evil. This is important because it makes us aware of what could happen in the afterlife.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  We should think about if the fact of evil counts against the existence of God. I think that evil and good must be present because the people that are evil and have fun at others expenses will pay after they die, and the people who are good and get persecuted will have a rewarding afterlife. B.C. Johnson: Why doesn’t God intervene to prevent evil.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Johnson, an atheist, writes about how there cannot be a God because of all the evil that happens. He talks about how innocent babies are killed in fires, and how Hitler was allowed to live. He also says if God exists he would have to be evil.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This story was written to show us that there couldn’t be a God because of the mass amounts of evil that take place. It’s a very one sided argument because he lists all of the bad things and none of the good things in the world. It was also written to see his beliefs in religion or non-beliefs because he is an atheist. He is using all of the evil things to support his atheism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  We should think about the fact that no good things were brought up such as love, friendship, and family. God has to allow evil in the world because if he didn’t, we would never know the difference between good and evil. Hick: There is a reason why God allows Evil.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hick writes about how evil has been around forever with the climax being when Jesus was crucified. He asks why an all-powerful God would allow this and says it’s because of the free will given to us. Everything bad happens because this world is not perfect and this is where â€Å"soul-making† begins.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This was written to show us that God allows evil because he doesn’t want us to be in a utopia because we will never build our souls.