Sunday, December 8, 2019

Joseph Nyes Soft Power and Hard power free essay sample

In the field of International Relations, Joseph S. Nye Jr. has developed a theory about the concept of power he coined ‘soft power’ in his 1990 book Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. A former United States assistant Secretary of Defense, and Dean of Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government as well as the chairman of the US National Intelligence Council, Joseph S. Nye Jr. is a political scientist. Considered to be the National Security Advisor during the 2005 United States presidential election, Nye is one of the most recognized liberal theorists in the field of International Relations and foreign policy. More than four decades ago, Nye has published many works where the predominant theme is about the notion of power and success in world politics. Nye’s most recent publication was The Future of Power in 2011, however his most influential work, apart from the book he co-authored with Robert Keohane, Power and Interdependence (1977) , was Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. In his 1990 book, Nye describes what the concept of ‘soft power’ with regards to the international relations and domestic affairs for nations. According to Nye, the nature of power is much easier to ‘experience’ than to conceptualize, and this is evident when he wrote, â€Å"†¦Power is like the weather. Everyone depends on it and talks about it, but few understand it†¦we first need to recognize some basic distinctions among the terms power. † Traditionally, in international politics the â€Å"strength of war† was seen as the only determining factor of great power. However, over time the world has changed, developed and improved, especially through technology and globalization. Similarly, the sources of power have also changed in regards to the type. Nye explains ‘soft power’ as a method that involves â€Å"attracting others to your agenda in world politics†¦getting others to want what you want,† essentially to obtain an outcome in â€Å"you want. † To provide further context on the theory of ‘soft power,’ Ernest Wilson’s proposes, â€Å"in international politics, having ‘power’ is the ability to influence another to act in ways in which that entity would not have otherwise acted. † Furthermore, Nye outlines that the general concept of the theory is that rather than a country using ‘hard power’ threats, such as Military power and economic power. This paper will address both the benefits and drawbacks associated with the implementation of ‘soft power’ by analyzing its impact on American power, the United Nations, and the significance of the theory’s reformation into ‘smart power. ’ In international affairs, ‘soft power’ is most widely held definition and now used commonly used among political leaders, and academics. In addition to ‘soft power,’ Nye expanded on the theory; moreover the definition of power had a wider-range than simply one type of power. In contrast to the theory of ‘soft power is hard power,’ which Nye claims, are the use of the Military and how good a country’s economy is. Recently, Nye has coined and created another concept from combining both ‘soft power’ and ‘hard power,’ he calls it ‘smart power. ’ The first section of this paper will analyze the impact of the theory of ‘soft power’ on the US, and whether the use of ‘soft power’ over ‘hard power’ is effective. The second issue this paper will examine is how the international stage is affected by the theory of ‘soft power’ through studying the role of the United Nation. The last section of this paper will discuss what the causes are behind the gradual development of the theory from ‘soft power’ to ‘smart power’ and whether the change is good or not. II. The Impact of Soft Power in the United States In the United States, ‘soft power’ has been exclusively used and successfully employed in America. The international political context, the US’s ‘sheer might’ is undeniably apparent and Nye states, â€Å"no opposing army would dare to challenge it on a level playing field. † Although this statement contends that due to America’s use of ‘hard power’ it will essentially be able to do whatever they please, and receive the outcomes they choose. Many International Relations theorists talk about power and politics in terms of ‘hard power. ’ The term ‘hard power’ refers to tangible materials; such as the Military and how many tanks a country has, for example. However, according to Nye, American cannot operate solely with its ‘hard power’ if it expects to successfully influence its interests around the world. In fact, as America’s strong Military power has increased, â€Å"its ability to persuade is at low ebb in many parts of the world, even among its oldest allies. † Therefore, it is safe to assume that in order for the US to further excel its dominant power globally, the country should consider the possibilities of using soft power’ rather than ‘hard power,’ or combining both resources. Consequently, there are other means and sources of power from which the US has the potential to influence their interests to others successfully. Under some American leaders, the design and model of the American foreign policy has been operating under a flawed perception of good conduct and is in need of repair. Although the US appears to be lacking considerable ‘soft power,’ under the current Presidential Administration, the US has attempted to supplement ‘hard power’ for ‘soft power. ’ For example, the Peace Corps (PC) and voluntary private organizations (PVO) have helped increase US ‘soft power’ by delivering new sources of power. Specifically, the PC and PVO join forces and create Peace Corps Volunteers (PVC) who share their cultural or ideological values with others, for example human rights, and influence others to wanting similar things. In turn, the significance of using this form of ‘soft power’ increases positive attention, but more importantly the power of the US on an international level is raised or increased. Therefore, the theory of ‘soft power’ creates a positive impact for the US and helps plays a major role in determining the country’s position, in regards to power and authority. Conversely, challenges have been brought upon Nye’s ‘soft power’ from critics arguing that no government can achieve influence over other countries or implement its aspirations without ‘hard power,’ more so military power. According to realists, such as Hans Morgenthau, soft power cannot deal with almost every world threat. For example, the recent intervention of the American foreign policy in the Middle East did not aid the US increase power, but rather in these cases the use of ‘soft power’ backfired. This is evident in the fallout in Libya, Yemen, and Egypt. The unintended consequences in Libya of the attack on the US consulate on September 11, 2012, resulted in the death of Ambassador Christopher Stevens and four other American embassy staff. The situation in the Libya and the Middle East is an example of how the efforts of Obama’s Administration to incorporate ‘soft power’ tactics were ineffective. However, other ‘moral realists’ assume that hard power alone is â€Å"self-defeating, and that and that nothing imperils Americas global stature so much as the amoral drift of U. S. foreign policy under the sway of multinational corporatism. † Whereas other cases suggest that using ‘soft power’ identifies a sense of weakness in a country political ability to obtaining their goals and may not always produce the desired outcomes. Ultimately, governments have the choice whether or not to follow the model of ‘soft power’ and learn to effectively use it to obtain the outcomes they desire. III. Soft Power and International Politics When Joseph Nye, Jr. introduced the concept of ‘soft power’ he did not limit the theory to the US or other similar strong nation. He noted that the notion of ‘soft power’ could be developed more â€Å"credibly abroad. † After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, ‘soft power’ has significantly become increasing in importance on a global scale around the world. With respect to international politics, Nye argues that there cannot be â€Å"global stability without the help of others† and the cooperation of international institutions, such as the United Nations. With no military forces of its own and a fairly low financial budget, it would seem the United Nations was an international institution built entirely on the foundation of relying on borrowed ‘hard power’ from other states. Created in 1945, the United Nations replaced its predecessor the League of Nation that failed in the 1930s, and acted as â€Å"the servant of its member states†¦protects the sovereign jurisdiction of its members. Designed to undertake the role of ‘policemen’ to enforce national, and collective security it was evident that the UN had and abundant influence of ‘hard power. ’ Evidence of the impact of the UN’s ‘ hard power’ was demonstrated in the exceptional cases that were the Korean War and first Gulf War. Nevertheless, the UN also has substantial international influence on countries through its use of the concepts of ‘soft power. ’ For example, the UN has the ability to â€Å"legitimize the actions of states† especially with respect to permitting or accepting an authority’s use of power. For example, according to Nye, the invasion of Iraq by the US Military sanctioned by the Bush Administration in 2003 could not have prevented. Undeniably, the UN remains a significant source of power and legitimacy around the world. Moreover, in terms of the international implications of Nye’s ‘soft power,’ the UN has demonstrated how useful soft power has been. Particularly, when used towards great powerful nations like the US. Albeit there are some limits to the UN’s ability and actions under ‘soft power,’ the concept is very much real, and deserves to be partly credited for the UN’s sustainability. IV. Evolution of Concepts of Power After the significant formulation and implementation of the theory of ‘soft power,’ Nye continues to develop his theory further. Originally, Nye separated the notion of power to be studied as two different ‘types’ – hard and soft. However, now the attention has shifted towards a newer principle, which he calls ‘smart power. ’ The CSIS: Commission on Smart Power report describe ‘smart power’ as, â€Å"developing an integrated strategy, resources base, and tool kit to achieve American objectives, drawing on both hard and soft power. † The notion of soft power is that it is not necessarily ‘hard power’ or ‘soft power. ’ The assumption under this approach, Nye emphasizes the importance of having both a powerful military, as well as â€Å"heavily invested in alliances. † Since the introduction of ‘smart power,’ it has received continuous interest and attention. A reason why ‘smart power’ is to be taken seriously and considered an effective instrument is evident in the US politics. Wilson suggests, ‘the most obvious reason to reflect seriously on smart power is because of the widely perceived shortcomings of the policies of the U. S. administration over the past seven years. † There is a universal notion that the foreign policies under the Bush Administration were not ‘smart. ’ As a consequence, the security interests of the US have been compromised, along with â€Å"unprecedented resentment† from the global community, which ultimately weakened the US’s position in power. However, according to the CSIS Commission’s report, the US regained the framework of power dominance as well as became a ‘smart power’ because the country invested in the â€Å"global good† V. Conclusion Political Science analyst, Joseph S. Nye, Jr. was a very influential International Relations theorist who created the theory of ‘soft power’ from the notion of ‘hard power,’ and further improved the concept of power by developing ‘smart power. ’ The notion of ‘soft power’ has been the critical problem-solving model for a variety of issues, for example, the global economy, and terrorism. Overall, Nye’s concepts of power play a vital role in all areas of study. The notion of ‘soft power’ has had it’s weaknesses from critics about the theory being misappropriated to mean insufficient power or a sign of weakness, nevertheless, ‘soft power’ has evidently been strong for many countries, in particular the United States. Ultimately, Nye’s concept of ‘soft power’ has proven to be more of an effective tool than not in international relations.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Transactional risks and development solutions

Hong Kong’s Hen Hao Trading Company has problems with its supply chain network. The company lacks enough supply of raw materials (quantity). It cannot produce products by itself, and hence needs to source them from the foreign manufacturers particularly in the US.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Transactional risks and development solutions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company needs to redesign its supply chain network and employ the best strategies that will ensure a steady supply of products from the foreign companies. Through the use of researches, the company can get relevant information for suppliers in the US, and come up with the best choice after assessing the suppliers’ capabilities. This will help it note the company that meets its specifications both today and in the future. The manufacturing companies in the United States also have problems with transactions because of difficulti es in penetrating their products to Hong Kong. The companies required to get involved in transactions have varying approaches and specifications. For instance, Gumpbell’s supplying approach demands periodic price adjustments, while that of Hen Hao demands fixed price within a specified period. The differences in their specifications make transactions difficult. To curb this problem, both the preferred buyer and preferred suppliers should engage in a meeting, discuss and come up with a mutually agreed contract. This agreement may entail the specifications of both parties, future transactions, and the purchase order proposals among other things that should be adhered to after the start of transactions. For instance, hen Hao and Gumpbell can settle their differences and transact businesses efficiently with each other. Financial risks and development solutions From the case study, it is evident that companies, both suppliers and buyers incur huge losses due to increased costs in their operations. Business organizations should follow the business rule of satisfying customers profitably (Nellore, 2001). They should curb financial risks surrounding them in order to make profits. This can be achieved by cutting on costs and maximizing on profits. Hen Hao Company has financial problems, and that is why it insists on looking for a manufacturing company that will agree to sign a contract of supplying products at a fixed cost for three years. However, Gumpbell, one of the suppliers does not favor long term supply contracts with its customers. The firm insists on price adjustments, rather than fixed prices. The company employs this approach in order to cut costs, and hence curb financial risks associated with fixed-price contracts. This shows that if the company agrees to sign the contract with Hen Hao in fixed price terms, it will experience financial problems. It is recommendable for the two firms to engage with each other, discuss and consider both sides to come up with decisions that favor both sides.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The differing foreign exchange rates also contribute to financial risks, as shown in the case study. It is essential to set prices for products differently depending on the current exchange rates. This can ensure that international companies run at a profit without expensing buyers or sellers. The issue of quality is also a concern in the case study, and it contributes to both financial and transaction risks. Companies do not prefer signing transaction contracts with low quality manufacturers (Nellore, 2001). It is risky to purchase low quality products as this can lead to huge losses. Customer satisfaction demands high quality goods and services. Low quality goods or services can make a firm lose customers, and hence incur huge losses. If Hen Hao Company chooses a low quality product supplier, it will lose market for the products and will collapse in a very short time due to the financial risk. It is vital for the company to consider consistent supply of high quality products first before anything else. This will attract and encourage post-purchase of its products, and hence gain competitive advantage over its competitors. Reference Nellore, R. (2001). Managing buyer-supplier relations: The winning edge through specification management. London: Routledge. This essay on Transactional risks and development solutions was written and submitted by user Yusuf Dyer to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

the civil rights movement black panther party essays

the civil rights movement black panther party essays Most of us, being United States citizens, would like to believe that everyone in this country is living in conditions of utmost freedom and equality. Although according to the constitution this is true, anyone who has ever been the victim of oppression knows not to take equality for granted. Our society has slowly grown to accept the different types of people that live in our country; it is now a lot less common to see peoples rights such as freedom and equality being abused. However, the influences of the past, when the living conditions were far less then equal for many groups of people, can still be witnessed today. A fine example of this could be seen through the way in which housing discrimination led to the colonization of Blacks into their own neighborhoods and communities, which eventually led to the creation of ghettos and gangs. Racism, in itself, is a belief that a person holds; it forces another being to be placed at a lower status within ones mind and in the society as a whole. Keeping Blacks and other minorities at a lower level was the principal state of mind for many of the whites during the early part of the twentieth century. This kind of mentality exists in our society till this day among certain groups of people. The cold and harsh manner with which the Blacks were treated takes us all the way back to slavery. Back in those days the majority of this countrys population accepted it. The oppressed African Americans eventually began to become more organized and started to fight for the civil rights they deserved as citizens of the United States. Despite the attempts of the Civil Rights Movement, much damage was already done; unfortunately many minds were already tarnished with negative images of what the Black person was and could ever be. In spite of the fact that many Black people were working tow ards moving up and making a life for themselves, racism continuously kept them from advancing in the ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

The Ostend Manifesto, 1854 Proposal for US to Acquire Cuba

The Ostend Manifesto, 1854 Proposal for US to Acquire Cuba The Ostend Manifesto was a document written by three American diplomats stationed in Europe in 1854 which advocated for the U.S. government to acquire the island of Cuba through either purchase or force. The plan created controversy when the document was made public in partisan newspapers the following year and federal officials denounced it. The goal of acquiring Cuba had been a pet project of President Franklin Pierce. The purchase or seizure of the island was also favored by pro-slavery politicians in the United States, who feared a slave rebellion in Cuba might spread to the American South. Key Takeaways: Ostend Manifesto Meeting requested by President Pierce led to proposal by three American ambassadors.Plan to acquire Cuba was rejected by Pierce as too audacious and unacceptable politically.When the proposal leaked to opposition newspapers the political battling over slavery intensified.One beneficiary of the proposal was James Buchanan, as his involvement helped him become president. The manifesto never led to the U.S. acquiring Cuba, of course. But it did serve to deepen the sense of distrust in America as the issue of slavery became a simmering crisis in the mid-1850s. In addition, the crafting of the document aided one of its authors, James Buchanan, whose rising popularity in the South helped him become president in the election of 1856. The Meeting at Ostend A crisis in Cuba developed in early 1854, when an American merchant ship, the Black Warrior, was seized in a Cuban port. The incident created tensions, as Americans considered the fairly minor incident to be an insult from Spain directed at the United States. The American ambassadors to three European countries were directed by President Franklin Pierce to meet quietly in the town of Ostend, Belgium, to come up with strategies to deal with Spain. James Buchanan, John Y. Mason, and Pierre Soule, the American ministers to Britain, France, and Spain, respectively, gathered and drafted the document that would become known as the Ostend Manifesto. The document, in fairly dry language, stated the issues the U.S. government had been having with Spain’s possession, Cuba. And it advocated that the United States should offer to purchase the island. It stated that Spain would likely be willing to sell Cuba, but if it didn’t, the document argued that the U.S. government should seize the island. The manifesto, addressed to Secretary of State William Marcy, was sent to Washington, where it was received by Marcy and passed along to President Pierce. Marcy and Pierce read the document and immediately rejected it. American Reaction to the Ostend Manifesto The diplomats had made a logical case for taking Cuba, and they argued throughout that the motivation was the preservation of the United States. In the document they specifically noted the fear of a slave rebellion in Cuba and how that might pose a danger. Less dramatically, they argued that Cuba’s geographic location made it a favorable position from which the United States could defend its southern coast, and specifically the valuable port of New Orleans. The authors of the Ostend Manifesto were not thoughtless or reckless. Their arguments for what would be a controversial series of actions paid some attention to international law and demonstrated some knowledge of naval strategy. Yet Pierce realized that what his diplomats proposed went far beyond any actions he was willing to take. He did not believe the American people, or the Congress, would go along with the plan. The manifesto might have been a quickly forgotten exercise in diplomatic brainstorming, but in the very partisan atmosphere of Washington in the 1850s it quickly turned into a political weapon. Within weeks of the document arriving in Washington, it had been leaked to newspapers favorable to the Whig Party, the opponents of Pierce. Politicians and newspaper editors directed withering criticism at Pierce. The work of three American diplomats in Europe turned into something of a firestorm as it touched upon the most contentious issue of the day, slavery. Anti-slavery sentiment in America was growing, especially with the formation of the new anti-slavery Republican Party. And the Ostend Manifesto was held up as an example of how the Democrats in power in Washington were devising underhanded ways to acquire territory in the Caribbean to extend America’s slave-holding territory. Newspaper editorials denounced the document. A political cartoon produced by the noted lithographers Currier and Ives would eventually ridicule Buchanan for his role in the drafting of the proposal. Cartoon of four ruffians robbing a respectable man with the Ostend Manifesto, to capture Cuba, written on a nearby wall and caption The Ostend Doctrine. Practical Democrats Carrying Out The Principle. circa 1854. Fotosearch / Getty Images Impact of the Ostend Manifesto The proposals set forth in the Ostend Manifesto never came to fruition, of course. If anything, the controversy over the document probably ensured that any discussion of the United States acquiring Cuba would be rejected. While the document was denounced in the northern press, one of the men who drafted it, James Buchanan, was ultimately helped by the controversy. The accusations that it was a pro-slavery scheme boosted his profile in the American South, and helped him secure the Democratic nomination for the election of 1856. He went on to win the election, and spent his one term as president trying, and failing, to grapple with the issue of slavery. Sources: Ostend Manifesto. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopediaâ„ ¢, Columbia University Press, 2018. Research in Context.McDermott, Theodore, et al. Ostend Manifesto. The Manifesto in Literature, edited by Thomas Riggs, vol. 1: Origins of the Form: Pre-1900, St. James Press, 2013, pp. 142-145. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Patrick, J., Pious, R., Ritchie, D. (1993). Pierce, Franklin. In  (Ed.), The Oxford Guide to the United States Government. : Oxford University Press.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Balancing Identity and Privacy - Growing risks and concerns about Essay

Balancing Identity and Privacy - Growing risks and concerns about social networks. Report - Essay Example But inherent in such transformation is the critical need to pay attention for security of the identity. The era of faceless business transactions has accompanied with itself the need to take serious look at the identity of a person. Identity has become a database entry which can now be disconnected from any physical recognition. It can be bought and sold like a commodity and is subject to theft and widespread misuse. This report will take a look at the repercussions of widespread social media on business and society as a whole. Blogging and Tweeting are terms used in the world of social media and they also becoming par to business vocabulary. But such terms are tip of the social media iceberg. Companies like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and LinkedIn are now changing the rules of how companies are doing business. In 21st century social media is changing the working environment of the company. The employees and employers are now practicing more flexibility along with the ability to respond to such conditions quickly. For many businesses social media is a boon which can be used to reach out to large target customers in a cost effective way. But they are also taking a close look the risk involved like theft, cyber bullying, fraud, defamation and invasion of privacy. Many believe that social media has a corporate value and is critical to the success of marketing efforts. Many senior executives believe that there are many potential risks which are involved while using social media. According to them the primary ri sks include disclosure of proprietary information, out-of date information, identifiable information and fraud (Jagatic, Johnson, Jakobsson and Menczer, 2007, pp. 94-100). The presence of Social Media has changed the way people communicate and interact with each other. But the world of social media has created a whole new world of security, privacy, intellectual property, employment practices and legal risks. Privacy risk refers to the process

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Noble Energy Inc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Noble Energy Inc - Essay Example Throughout the years of its existence, the company has managed to overcome a lot of economic challenges which have encouraged and promoted them to have a strong financial cash flow system. Some of the operations that have enhanced their financial status include: their on-shore and off-shore operations that are located in different parts of the world. The company has been planning to expand its operations strategically by promoting partnerships that will allow it to save on costs and leverage on the expertise of the company. As a result, the company has ventured into fulfilling partnerships with several energy companies worldwide. It is without doubt that strategic partnerships and alliances always ensure that a company has a strong business foundation for years to come. The company’s oil drilling technology is up to par with the current standards. With that, they have an added advantage over energy companies that have not yet acquired the latest drilling technologies. In addition to that, their leadership and management can be termed as solemn since they have driven the company to the level that they are in currently. The market that is available is open for more energy options to be realized by the different energy companies. It is without doubt that if the company invests in natural gas plants they will have a variety of energy solutions to offer to their customers.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Studies and researches on diverse groups of English speakers Essay Example for Free

Studies and researches on diverse groups of English speakers Essay In lieu of the English language expansion throughout the globe, particular nation should really take the advantage of being proficient in the English language even if it is not its official language. As stated earlier, the English language is widely known and used not only by the English-spoken countries but also by the international community (Cheshire 2007). Thus, it is really an advantage if countries would learn how to speak and understand the English language. However, the inclusion of the English language in the curriculum of education of different countries is not really that simple. Moreover, the English language itself is being draft and constructed in a new structure depending on the culture, tradition and established educational method. Hence in a way, there is still a different way of using and understanding the English language. Shaobin’s â€Å"English as a Global Language in China† According to Ji Shaobin, the English language is a very important tool for the Chinese in order to have access on the international scene. He argued that in this modern period, the language that is commonly used in the international scene is the English language hence China should improve their proficiency in the English language (2002). He said that in the ancient times China was against having any contact with the Western culture because of a fear that their Chinese cultural heritage might be contaminated (Shaobin 2002). However, such conservatism would not really help China in advancing itself economically and politically speaking (Weixing 2003). Also, such attempt to close China from the influence of the English language became so impossible given the fact that in order to have a good international business transaction or any international affair, one should do it using the English language otherwise both parties would not understand each other. Moreover, China realized that only through the use of the English language can they penetrate and have access on modern scientific and technological advances (Liu 2007). Besides, the English language is the language that is being used in economic transactions globally (Ross 1993). Hence, China was forced to recognize the importance of a foreign language – that is the English language. In 1978, the reformation of the Chinese economy marked the total entrance of English as its foreign language (Shaobin 2002). With the consideration that Western companies and other transnational organizations may really help the economy of China, English was allowed to be used and practiced in China (Ross 1993). Due to overwhelming advantages of learning and using the English language, China included in its curriculum of education the teaching of English. Such change in educational system facilitated the economic progress in China wherein people who have something to do with business and marketing were using the English language to make business transactions outside China (Shaobin 2002). In addition, Chinese students, even if learning English was not really compulsory, were forced to study it since it has a great advantage on employment. There was an increase of need on English teachers who would teach the English language top the Chinese students (Shaobin 2002). And because of this event, even Chinese teachers were motivated to take English courses too. Nonetheless, China does not really intend to embrace the Western tradition. It is only the English language that they want to adopt. Evidently, China is rising as one of the superpowers in this modern era (Weixing 2003). Together with Japan, China has truly made use of the English language to boost its economic and political aspects. Japan on the English Language and English-speakers The English Language has been considered as the second official language in Japan (Porcaro 2002). It cannot be doubted that Japan has a distinct culture and tradition as well as form of educational system that which is far different from other countries. However, due to economic pursuit, Japan realizes the importance of having a second language that other countries can understand. Japan uses the English to advance itself politically, economically and internationally (Marciamo 2005). The English language is widely used in Japan as public signs. Although, these signs are still printed in Japanese language, it is translated in the English language. Street signs, area maps, transportation directions, post offices and banks’ signs are also translated in English. Such is made for the benefit of the tourists. It is a lot easier and practicable to translate those signs in the English language in order for the tourists to understand the signs posted in Japan (for travel convenience) (Marciamo 2005). When it comes to internet and websites, Japanese companies provide an English version of their websites. Further, the government of Japan and its agencies has also an English version of its websites (McMillan 1999). With regards to media and movies, Japanese films are shown with English subtitles (Marciamo 2005). There are also bilingual programs that are being simulcast and shown in the national TV channel of Japan – in Japanese and in English (McMillan 1999). Major newspapers and magazines are also printed with English translations. Japan’s curriculum for education includes the teaching of the English language (just like China). The Japanese government makes English a required subject. All Japanese schools include English in their education program (Saito, Nakamura, Yamazaki 2002). However it is not the case that all Japanese are proficient in the English language – in writing and speaking of it. Yet, it shows that Japan’s proficiency in speaking the English language is rising (Marciamo 2005). Moreover, the Japanese language is said to have an increasing character of having assimilations on the English language (Marciamo 2005). But then, it does not follow that all English speakers worldwide can understand the Japanese language. Only that the English language is being used extensively by the Japanese people in their everyday activities and dwellings (Stanlaw 2005). There is no other country but Japan where the English language has a special status (McMillan 1999). As mentioned above, it does not follow that all or even most of the Japanese can speak and understand (Marciamo 2005) English. Hitherto, Japan is one of the countries which regard the English language as an essential means to communicate with other people of different culture, race and tradition.